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Nineteen Eighty-Four (1954)

Courtesy of BBC

Main image of Nineteen Eighty-Four (1954)
BBC, tx. 12 & 16/12/1954
107 minutes, black & white
ProducerRudolph Cartier
AdaptationNigel Kneale
Original novelGeorge Orwell

Cast: Peter Cushing (Winston Smith); Yvonne Mitchell (Julia); Andre Morell (O'Brien); Arnold Diamond (Emmanuel Goldstein); Donald Pleasence (Syme)

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In a future authoritarian state, Winston Smith rebels by beginning an illicit love affair and plotting revolution.

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Nigel Kneale's adaptation of George Orwell's most celebrated novel was one of the most controversial television programmes of its time, and marks a key transitional moment in the development of television drama in Britain.

Orwell's warning of a totalitarian future - with one eye on the Soviet present - was just six years old when Kneale and producer Rudolph Cartier (in modern terms, the director) enacted it for the small screen, and audiences and critics were unprepared for the brutality endured by its hapless hero, Winston Smith.

Like all TV drama of the time, Nineteen Eighty-Four was broadcast live, but it made unusually extensive and imaginative use of filmed inserts - 14 in total. These sequences bought time for the more elaborate costume changes or scene set-ups, but also served to 'open out' the action - showing us both the desolate 'prole sector' and the apparently idyllic woods where Winston (Peter Cushing) and Julia (Yvonne Mitchell) have their first illicit meeting - while speeding up the drama by reducing the average shot length.

This unusual freedom helped make Nineteen Eighty-Four the most expensive TV drama of its day, but other, less costly features were just as striking. The careful use of close-ups, accompanied by recorded voice-over, allows us a window into Winston's inner torment (and demonstrates Cushing's grasp of small screen performance) as he struggles to disguise his 'thoughtcrimes', while effectively representing Big Brother's frightening omniscience. In the torture sequence, Cartier condenses days, perhaps weeks of relentless humiliation into a few minutes by periodically fading to black, slightly reframing the shot, then fading back in. Throughout this sequence, Winston is hidden from view while we watch his persecutor, O'Brien (André Morrell, whose coolly menacing performance is at least equal to Cushing's). This enhances our shock when the abject figure of Winston is finally revealed, stripped of all humanity.

Audiences today are used to far stronger stuff, but in 1954 the drama caused outrage among MPs and some sections of the press. The BBC took threats against Cartier's life seriously enough to provide him with a bodyguard. Support, however, came from an unlikely quarter, when the Duke of Edinburgh announced that he and the Queen had 'thoroughly enjoyed' the broadcast. This endorsement, and the publicity generated by its opponents, ensured that the programme attracted a massive audience - the largest since the Coronation - when transmitted a second time (again live) four days after its first screening.

Mark Duguid

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Video Clips
1. The two-minute hate (3:52)
2. Film sequence: The prole sector (1:18)
3. Mr Charrington (3:14)
4. Syme (2:25)
5. 'We are the dead' (2:01)
6. A picture of the future (1:21)
Production stills
Brazil (1985)
1984 (1965)
Guardians, The (1971)
News-Benders, The (1968)
Brambell, Wilfrid (1912-1985)
Cartier, Rudolph (1904-94)
Cushing, Peter (1913-1994)
Griffith, Kenneth (1921-2006)
Morell, André (1909-1978)
Pleasence, Donald (1919-1995)
Conspiracy Drama
Live TV Drama
TV Literary Adaptation
TV Sci-Fi
The Television Play